Preparation of financial statements requires the use of professional judgment in the adoption of accountancy policies and estimates. Prudence requires that accountants should exercise a degree of caution in the adoption of policies and significant estimates such that the assets and income of the entity are not overstated whereas liability and expenses are not under stated.
The rationale behind prudence is that a company should not recognize an asset at a value that is higher than the amount which is expected to be recovered from its sale or use. Conversely, liabilities of an entity should not be presented below the amount that is likely to be paid in its respect in the future.
There is an inherent risk that assets and income of an entity are more likely to be overstated than understated by the management whereas liabilities and expenses are more likely to be understated. The risk arises from the fact that companies often benefit from better reported profitability and lower gearing in the form of cheaper source of finance and higher share price. There is a risk that leverage offered in the choice of accounting policies and estimates may result in bias in the preparation of the financial statements aimed at improving profitability and financial position through the use of creative accounting techniques. Prudence concept helps to ensure that such bias is countered by requiring the exercise of caution in arriving at estimates and the adoption of accounting policies.
Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value (NRV) rather than the expected selling price. This ensures profit on the sale of inventory is only realized when the actual sale takes place.
However, prudence does not require management to deliberately overstate its liabilities and expenses or understate its assets and income. The application of prudence should eliminate bias from financial statements but its application should not reduce the reliability of the information
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Which of the following are examples of the application of prudence concept?
Inventory costing $1000 is recorded at the net realizable value of $1200.
Inventory must be recorded at the lower of cost and net realizable value which in this case is $1000.
Expected loss on a construction contract is recognized immediately in the income statement.
While profit in respect of a construction contract is only recognized to the extent that it is earned using stage of completion method, any expected loss is recognized immediately due to the use of prudence concept.